It is the most populous, and the second largest autonomous community in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as a "historical nationality". Its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula , in southwestern Europe, immediately south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha ; west of the autonomous community of Murcia and the Mediterranean Sea ; east of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean ; and north of the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System , while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. These coins, called dinars , were inscribed in both Latin and Arabic.
In order to preserve these areas in a manner compatible with both conservation and economic exploitation, many of the most representative ecosystems have been given protected status. RENPA consists of protected spaces, consisting of two national parks24 natural parks21 periurban parks on the fringes of cities or towns32 natural sites, two protected countrysides, 37 natural monuments, 28 nature reserves, and four concerted nature reserves in which a government agency coordinates with the owner of the property for its managementall part of the European Union's Natura network.
In total, nearly 20 percent of the territory of Andalusia lies in one of these protected areas, which constitute roughly 30 percent of the protected territory of Spain. The geostrategic position of Andalusia in the extreme south of Europeproviding along with Morocco a gateway between Europe and Africa, added to its position between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Seaas well as its rich deposits of minerals and its agricultural wealth, have made Andalusia a tempting prize for civilizations since prehistoric times.
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The first settlers, based on artifacts from the archaeological sites at Los MillaresEl Argarand Tartessoswere clearly influenced by cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean who arrived on the Andalusian coast. With the fall of the original Phoenician cities in the East, Carthage - itself the most significant Phoenician colony - became the dominant sea power of the western Mediterranean and the most important trading partner for the Phoenician towns along the Andalusian coast. Andalusia was the major staging ground for the war with Rome led by the Carthaginian general Hannibal.
The Romans defeated the Carthaginians and conquered Andalusia, the region being renamed Baetica. The Vandals moved briefly through the region during the 5th century AD before settling in North Africa, after which the region fell into the hands of the Visigothic Kingdom.
The Visigoths in this region were practically independent of the Visigothic Catholic Kingdom of Toledo. This is the era of Saints Isidore of Seville and Hermenegild.
They established Spaniaa province of the Byzantine Empire from until Though their holdings were quickly reduced, they continued to have interests in the region until it was lost altogether in When the Muslim invaders seized control and consolidated their dominion of the region, they remained tolerant to the population faiths, but they also needed a place for their own faith. In the s, they forcibly rented half of Cordoba's Cathedral of San Vicente Visigothic to use as a mosque.
The mosque's hypostyle plan, consisting of a rectangular prayer hall and an enclosed courtyard, followed a tradition established in the Umayyad and Abbasid mosques of Syria and Iraq. However, the dramatic articulation of the interior of the prayer hall was utiendakiteboarding.comecedented.
The system of columns supporting double arcades of piers and arches with alternating red and white voussoirs is an unusual treatment that, structurally, combined striking visual effect with the practical advantage of providing greater height within the hall.
Alternating red and white voussoirs are associated with Umayyad monuments such as the Great Mosque of Damascus and the Dome of the Rock. Their use in the Great Mosque of Cordoba manages to create a stunningly original visual composition even as it emphasises 'Abd al-Rahman's connection to the established Umayyad tradition.
In this period, the name " Al-Andalus " was applied to the Iberian Peninsula, and later it referred to the parts not controlled by the Gothic states in the North. The Muslim rulers in Al-Andalus were economic invaders and interested in collecting taxes; social changes imposed on the native populace were mainly confined to geographical, political and legal conveniences.
Byzantine architecture is an example of such cultural diffusion continuing even after the collapse of the empire. Nevertheless, the Guadalquivir River valley became the point of power projection in the peninsula with the Caliphate of Cordoba making Cordoba its capital. Under these rulers, Cordoba was the center of economic and cultural significance. By the 10th century, the northern Kingdoms of Spain and other European Crowns had begun what would eventually become the Reconquista : the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula for Christendom.
Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman suffered some minor military defeats, but often managed to manipulate the Gothic northern kingdoms to act against each other's interests. Al-Hakam achieved military successes, but at the expense of uniting the north against him.
The main Taifas therefore had to resort to assistance from various other powers across the Mediterranean. A number of different Muslim dynasties of North African origin-notably Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty -dominated a slowly diminishing Al-Andalus over the next several centuries. After the victory at the Battle of Sagrajas put a temporary stop to Castile expansion, the Almoravid dynasty reunified Al-Andalus with its capital in Granada, ruling until the midth century.
The various Taifa kingdoms were assimilated. The victory at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa marked the beginning of the end of the Almohad dynasty. The weakness caused by the collapse of Almohad power and the subsequent creation of new Taifaseach with its own ruler, led to the rapid Castile reconquest of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The fall of Granada on 2 January put an end to the Nasrid rule,  event that marks the beginning of Andalusia, the southern four territories of the Crown of Castile in the Iberian Peninsula.
Seven months later, on 3 August Christopher Columbus left the town of Palos de la FronteraHuelva, with the first expedition that resulted in the Discovery of the Americas that would end the Middle Ages and signal the beginning of modernity. Many Castilians participated in this and other expeditions that followed, some of them known as the Minor or Andalusian Journeys. Contacts between Spain and the Americasincluding royal administration and the shipping trade from Asia and America for over three hundred years, came almost exclusively through the south of Spain, specially Seville and Cadiz ports.
As a result, it became the wealthiest, most influential region in Spain and amongst the most influential in Europe. For example, the Habsburg diverted much of this trade wealth to control its European territories.
In the first half of the 16th century plague was still prevalent in Spain. According to George C. Kohn, "One of the worst epidemics of the century, whose miseries were accompanied by severe drought and food shortage, started in ; byaboutpeople had died in Andalusia alone.
Andalusia was struck once again in Following the Second Rebellion of the Alpujarras in - the Moorish population-that is, unconverted Moriscos -were expelled from Kingdom of Castile and Aragon.
However, by order of the Spanish crowntwo Moorish families were required to remain in each village in order to demonstrate to the new inhabitants, introduced from northern Spain, the workings of the terracing and irrigation systems on which the district's agriculture depends.
In Spanish troops strongly resisted the French occupation during the Peninsular War part of the Napoleonic Wars. Andalusia profited from the Spanish overseas empire, although much trade and finance eventually came to be controlled by other parts of Europe to where it was ultimately destined. In the 18th century, commerce from other parts of Spain began to displace Andalusian commerce when the Spanish government ended Andalusia's trading monopoly with the colonies in the Americas.
The loss of the empire in the s hurt the economy of the region, particularly the cities that had benefited from the trade and ship building. The construction of railways in the latter part of the 19th century enabled Andalusia to better develop its agricultural potential and it became an exporter of food. While industrialisation was taking off in the northern Spanish regions of Catalonia and the Basque country, Andalusia remained traditional and displayed a deep social division between a small class of wealthy landowners and a population made up largely of poor agricultural labourers and tradesmen.
Andalusia was one of the worst affected regions of Spain by Francisco Franco 's brutal campaign of mass-murder and political suppression called the White Terror during and after the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist rebels bombed and seized the working-class districts of the main Andalusian cities in the first days of the war,  and afterwards went on to execute thousands of workers and militants of the leftist parties: in the city of Cordoba 4,;  in the city of Granada 5,;  in the city of Seville 3,;  and in the city of Huelva 2, killed and 2, disappeared.
Paul Preston estimates the total number of victims of deliberately killed by the Nationalists in Andalusia at 55, Andalusia is one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain. The Autonomous Community of Andalusia was formed in accord with a referendum of 28 February  and became an autonomous community under the Statute of Autonomy known as the Estatuto de Carmona. The process followed the Spanish Constitution ofstill current as ofwhich recognizes and guarantees the right of autonomy for the various regions and nationalities of Spain.
The process to establish Andalusia as an autonomous region followed Article of the Constitution, making Andalusia the only autonomous community to take that particular course. That article was set out for regions like Andalusia that had been prevented by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War from adopting a statute of autonomy during the period of the Second Spanish Republic.
Article 1 of the Statute of Autonomy justifies autonomy based on the region's "historical identity, on the self-government that the Constitution permits every nationality, on outright equality to the rest of the nationalities and regions that compose Spain, and with a power that emanates from the Andalusian Constitution and people, reflected in its Statute of Autonomy".
In the Andalusians broadly backed the constitutional consensus. Today, the Constitution, in its Article 2, recognizes Andalusia as a nationality as part of the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation.
On 2 November the Spanish Chamber Deputies ratified the text of the Constitutional Commission with votes in favor, none opposed, and 2 abstentions.
This was the first time a Spanish Organic Law adopting a Statute of Autonomy was approved with no opposing votes. The Senate, in a plenary session of 20 Decemberratified the referendum to be voted upon by the Andalusian public 18 February The Statute of Autonomy spells out Andalusia's distinct institutions of government and administration.
The Andalusian Statute of Autonomy recognizes Seville as the region's capital. The Andalusian Autonomous Government is located there. Within the government, the President of the Regional Government of Andalusia is the supreme representative of the autonomous community, and the ordinary representative of the Spanish state in the autonomous community.
The president is formally named to the position by the Monarch of Spain and then confirmed by a majority vote of the Parliament of Andalusia. In practice, the monarch always names a person acceptable to the ruling party or coalition of parties in the autonomous region.
In theory, were the candidate to fail to gain the needed majority, the monarch could propose a succession of candidates. After two months, if no proposed candidate could gain the parliament's approval, the parliament would automatically be dissolved and the acting president would call new elections. The Council of Government, the highest political and administrative organ of the Community, exercises regulatory and executive power. In the current legislature -there are 15 of these departments.
The Parliament of Andalusia, its Autonomic Legislative Assembly, develops and approves laws and elects and removes the President.
Further elections have occurred in,, and The High Court is not an organ of the Autonomous Community, but rather of the Judiciary of Spainwhich is unitary throughout the kingdom and whose powers are not transferred to the autonomous communities. Andalusia consists of eight provinces. The latter were established by Javier de Burgos in the territorial division of Spain.
Each of the Andalusian provinces bears the same name as its capital: . Within the various autonomous communities of Spain, comarcas are comparable to shires or, in some countries, counties in the English-speaking world.
Unlike in some of Spain's other autonomous communities, under the original Statute of Autonomy, the comarcas of Andalusia had no formal recognition, but, in practice, they still had informal recognition as geographic, cultural, historical, or in some cases administrative entities.
The Statute of Autonomy echoes this practice, and mentions comarcas in Article 97 of Title III, which defines the significance of comarcas and establishes a basis for formal recognition in future legislation. The current statutory entity that most closely resembles a comarca is the mancomunida a freely chosen, bottom-up association of municipalities intended as an instrument of socioeconomic development and coordination between municipal governments in specific areas.
Beyond the level of provinces, Andalusia is further divided into municipalities municipios. At the municipal level, representation, government and administration is performed by the ayuntamiento municipal governmentwhich has competency for urban planningcommunity social services, supply and treatment of water, collection and treatment of waste, and promotion of tourism, culture, and sports, among other matters established by law.
In conformity with the intent to devolve control as locally as possible, in many cases, separate nuclei of population within municipal borders each administer their own interests. Andalusia ranks first by population among the 17 autonomous communities of Spain.
The estimated population at the beginning of was 8, The population is aging, although the process of immigration is countering the inversion of the population pyramid. At the end of the 20th century, Andalusia was in the last phase of demographic transition. The death rate stagnated at around per thousand, and the population came to be influenced mainly by birth and migration. InAndalusia had Bythis had declined to Although the Andalusian population was not declining in absolute terms, these relative losses were due to emigration great enough to nearly counterbalance having the highest birth rate in Spain.
Since the s, this process has reversed on all counts, and as ofAndalusia has Furthermore, prior emigrants have been returning to Andalusia. Beginning in the s, others have been immigrating in large numbers as well, as Spain has become a country of net immigration.
At the beginning of the 21st century, statistics show a slight increase in the birth rate, due in large part to the higher birth rate among immigrants. At the beginning of the 21st century, the population structure of Andalusia shows a clear inversion of the population pyramid, with the largest cohorts falling between ages 25 and As far as composition by sex, two cts stand out: the higher percentage of women in the elderly population, owing to women's longer life expectancy, and, on the other hand, the higher percentage of men of working age, due in large part to a predominantly male immigrant population.
In5. This is a relatively low number for a Spanish region, the national average being three percentage points higher. The predominant nationalities among the immigrant populations are Moroccan 92, constituting When comparing world regions rather than individual countries, the single largest immigrant block is from the region of Latin Americaoutnumbering not only all North Africans, but also all non-Spanish Western Europeans.
Andalusia is traditionally an agricultural area, but the service sector particularly tourism, retail sales, and transportation now predominates. The once booming construction sector, hit hard by the recessionwas also important to the region's economy. The industrial sector is less developed than most other regions in Spain. Between - economic growth per annum was 3. The primary sectordespite adding the least of the three sectors to the regional GDP remains important, especially when compared to typical developed economies.
The primary sector produces 8. The primary sector is divided into a number of subsectors: agriculturecommercial fishinganimal husbandryhuntingforestryminingand energy. For many centuries, agriculture dominated Andalusian society, and, with Using irrigation, maizecotton and rice are also grown on the banks of the Guadalquivir and Genil. Organic farming has recently undergone rapid expansion in Andalusia, mainly for export to European markets but with increasing demand developing in Spain.
Andalusia has a long tradition of animal husbandry and livestock farming, but it is now restricted mainly to mountain meadows, where there is less pressure from other potential uses.
Andalusians have a long and colourful history of dog breeding that can be observed throughout the region today. The raising of livestock now plays a semi-marginal role in the Andalusian economy, constituting only 15 percent of the primary sector, half the number for Spain taken as a whole. Although the productivity is higher than with extensive techniques, the economics are quite different.
While intensive techniques now dominate in Europe and even in other regions of Spain, most of Andalusia's cattlevirtually all of its sheep and goatsand a good portion of its pigs are raised by extensive farming in mountain pastures. Andalusia's native sheep and goats present a great economic opportunity in a Europe where animal products are generally in strong supply, but the sheep and goat meat, milk, and leather and the products derived from these are relatively scarce.
Dogs are bred not just as companion animals, but also as herding animals used by goat and sheep herders. Hunting remains relatively important in Andalusia, but has largely lost its character as a means of obtaining food. It is now more of a leisure activity linked to the mountain areas and complementary to forestry and the raising of livestock.
The Andalusian forests are important for their extent percent of the territory of Andalusia-and for other less quantifiable environmental reasons, such as their value in preventing erosion, regulating the flow of water necessary for other flora and fauna. For these reasons, there is legislation in place to protect the Andalusian forests.
This comes mostly from cultivated species- eucalyptus in Huelva and poplar in Granada-as well as naturally occurring cork oak in the Sierra Morena. Fishing is a longstanding tradition on the Andalusian coasts. Fish and other seafood have long figured prominently in the local diet and in the local gastronomic culture: fried fish pescaito frito in local dialectwhite prawnsalmadraba tuna, among others.
The Andalusian fishing fleet is Spain's second largest, after Galiciaand Andalusia's 38 fishing ports are the most of any Spanish autonomous community.
Failure to comply with fisheries laws regarding the use of trawling, urban pollution of the seacoast, destruction of habitats by coastal construction for example, alteration of the mouths of rivers, construction of portsand diminution of fisheries by overexploitation have created a permanent crisis in the Andalusian fisheries, justifying attempts to convert the fishing fleet.
The decrease in fish stocks has led to the rise of aquacultureincluding fish farming both on the coasts and in the interior. Despite the general poor returns in recent years, mining retains a certain importance in Andalusia.
Andalusia produces half of Spain's mining product by value. Of Andalusia's production, roughly half comes from the province of Huelva. Mining for precious metals at Minas de Riotinto in Huelva see Rio Tinto Group dates back to pre-Roman times; the mines were abandoned in the Middle Ages and rediscovered in In addition, limestone, clay, and other materials used in construction are well distributed throughout Andalusia.
The Andalusian industrial sector has always been relatively small. Nevertheless, inAndalusian industry earned This represented 9. In a comparison with the Spanish economy, this subsector is virtually the only food that has some weight in the national economy with On the contrary it is symptomatic of how little weight the regional economy in such important sectors such as textiles or electronics at the national level.
Andalusian industry is also characterized by a specialization in industrial activities of transforming raw agricultural and mineral materials. This is largely done by small enterprises without the public or foreign investment more typical of a high level of industrialization.
In recent decades the Andalusian tertiary service sector has grown greatly, and has come to constitute the majority of the regional economy, as is typical of contemporary economies in developed nations. Inthis had risen to This process of "tertiarization" of the economy has followed a somewhat unusual course in Andalusia. There were two principal reasons that "tertiarization" followed a different course in Andalusia than elsewhere:.
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Andalusian capital found it impossible to compete in the industrial sector against more developed regions, and was obligated to invest in sectors that were easier to enter. The absence of an industrial sector that could absorb displaced agricultural workers and artisans led to the proliferation of services with rather low productivity.
This unequal development compared to other regions led to a hypertrophied and utiendakiteboarding.comoductive service sector, which has tended to reinforce underdevelopment, because it has not led to large accumulations of capital. Due in part to the relatively mild winter and spring climate, the south of Spain is attractive to overseas visitors-especially tourists from Northern Europe.
Among the autonomous communities, Andalusia is second only to Catalonia in tourism, with nearly 30 million visitors every year. The principal tourist destinations in Andalusia are the Costa del Sol and secondarily the Sierra Nevada.
As discussed aboveAndalusia is one of the sunniest and warmest places in Europe, making it a center of "sun and sand" tourism, but not only it. Around 70 percent of the lodging capacity and 75 percent of the nights booked in Andalusian hotels are in coastal municipalities.
The largest number of tourists come in August- Inthe Blue Flag beach program of the non-profit Foundation for Environmental Education recognized 66 Andalusian beaches and 18 pleasure craft ports as being in a good state of conservation in terms of sustainability, accessibility, and quality. However, Hotel chains such as Fuerte Hotels have ensured that sustainability within the tourism industry is one of their highest priorities.
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Together with "sand and sun" tourism, there has also been a strong increase in nature tourism in the interior, as well as cultural tourismsport tourism, and conventions [ citation needed ].
One example of sport and nature tourism is the ski resort at Sierra Nevada National Park. As for cultural tourism, there are hundreds of cultural tourist destinations: cathedrals, castles, forts, monasteries, and historic city centers and a wide variety of museums.
There are also archeological sites of great interest: the Roman city of Italicabirthplace of Emperor Trajan and most likely Hadrian or Baelo Claudia near Tarifa. There are numerous other significant museums around the region, both of paintings and of archeological artifacts such as gold jewelry, pottery and other ceramics, and other works that demonstrate the region's artisanal traditions.
The unemployment rate stood at As in any modern society, transport systems are an essential structural element of the functioning of Andalusia. The transportation network facilitates territorial coordination, economic development and distribution, and intercity transportation.
In urban transport, underdeveloped public transport systems put pedestrian traffic and other non-motorized traffic are at a disadvantage compared to the use of private vehicles. For over a century, the conventional rail network has been centralized on the regional capital, Seville, and the national capital, Madrid; in general, there are no direct connections between provincial capitals. Further AVE routes are under construction. Algeciras is Spain's leading commercial port, with 60, tonnes 66, short tons of cargo in The lack of high-quality fossil fuels in Andalusia has led to a strong dependency on petroleum imports.
Still, Andalusia has a strong potential for the development of renewable energyabove all wind energy. The Andalusian Energy Agency established in by the autonomous government, is a new governmental organ charged with the development of energy policy and provision of a sufficient supply of energy for the community.
The infrastructure for production of electricity consists of eight large thermal power stationsmore than 70 hydroelectric power plants, two wind farmsand 14 major cogeneration facilities. It is the largest existing solar power facility in Europe. Two more large thermosolar facilities, Andasol I y IIplanned at Hoya de Guadix in the province of Granada are expected to supply electricity to half a million households.
As throughout Spain, basic education in Andalusia is free and compulsory. Students are required to complete ten years of schooling, and may not leave school before the age of 16, after which students may continue on to a baccalaureateto intermediate vocational educationto intermediate-level schooling in arts and design, to intermediate sports studies, or to the working world.
Andalusia has a tradition of higher education dating back to the Modern Age and the University of GranadaUniversity of Baezaand University of Osuna. As ofthere are ten private or public universities in Andalucia. University studies are structured in cycles, awarding degrees based on ECTS credits in accord with the Bologna processwhich the Andalusian universities are adopting in accord with the other universities of the European Higher Education Area. Responsibility for healthcare jurisdictions devolved from the Spanish government to Andalusia with the enactment of the Statute of Autonomy.
Thus, the Andalusian Health Service Servicio Andaluz de Salud currently manages almost all public health resources of the Community, with such exceptions as health resources for prisoners and members of the military, which remain under central administration.
The Council of Innovation, Science and Business is the organ of the autonomous government responsible for universities, research, technological development, industry, and energy. The Andalusian government deploye Ubuntu desktop computers in their schools. Andalusia has international, national, regional, and local media organizations, which are active gathering and disseminating information as well as creating and disseminating entertainment.
Different newspapers are published for each Andalusian provincial capital, comarcaor important city. Often, the same newspaper organization publishes different local editions with much shared content, with different mastheads and different local coverage.
There are also popular papers distributed without charge, again typically with local editions that share much of their content. No single Andalusian newspaper is distributed throughout the region, not even with local editions. Grupo Joly is based in Andalucia, backed by Andalusian capital, and publishes eight daily newspapers there.
The patrimony of Andalusia has been shaped by its particular history and geography, as well as its complex flows of population. Andalusia has been home to a succession of peoples and civilizations, many very different from one another, each impacting the settled inhabitants. All have shaped the Spanish patrimony in Andalusia, which was already diffused widely in the literary and pictorial genre of the costumbrismo andaluz.
In the 19th century, Andalusian culture came to be widely viewed as the Spanish culture par excellencein part thanks to the perceptions of romantic travellers. In the words of Ortega y Gasset :. Andalusia, which has never shown the swagger nor petulancy of particularism; that has never pretended to the status of a State apart, is, of all the Spanish regions, the one that possesses a culture most radically its own.
Throughout the 19th century, Spain has submitted itself to the hegemonic influence of Andalusia. The dominant ideas have an Andalusian accent. One paints Andalusia: a roof-terrace, some flowerpots, blue sky. One reads southern authors. One speaks at all times of the "land of the Most Holy Virgin Mary". The thief from the Sierra Morena and the smuggler are national heroes. All Spain feels its existence justified by the honor of having on its flanks the Andalusian piece of the planet.
Aroun like so many other things, this changes. The North sits up. Since the Neolithic era, Andalusia has preserved important megalithssuch as the dolmens at the Cueva de Menga and the Dolmen de Vieraboth at Antequera.
Some of the greatest architecture in Andalusia were developed across several centuries and civilizations. The traditional architecture of Andalusia retains its Roman with added Persian and Egyptian influences brought by Arabswith a marked Mediterranean character strongly conditioned by the climate.
Traditional urban houses are constructed with shared walls to minimize exposure to high exterior temperatures. Solid exterior walls are painted with lime to minimize the heating effects of the sun.
In accord with the climate and tradition of each area, the roofs may be terraces or tiled in the Roman imbrex and tegula style. Other characteristic elements are decorative and functional wrought iron gratings and the tiles known as azulejos. Landscaping-both for common private homes and homes on a more lavish scale-also carries on older traditions, with plants, flowers, and fountains, pools, and streams of water. Beyond these general elements, there are also specific local architectural styles, such as the flat roofsroofed chimneys, and radically extended balconies of the Alpujarrathe cave dwellings of Guadix and of Granada's Sacromonteor the traditional architecture of the Marquisate of Zenete.
The monumental architecture of the centuries immediately after the Reconquista often displayed an assertion of Christian hegemony through architecture that referenced non-Arab influences. Seville and its kingdom also figured prominently in this era, as is shown by the Casa consistorial de Sevillathe Hospital de las Cinco Llagasor the Charterhouse of Jerez de la Frontera. Andalusia also preserves an important industrial patrimony related to various economic activities. Besides the architecture of the cities, there is also much outstanding rural architecture: houses, as well as ranch and farm buildings and dog houses.
The Sevillian school of sculpture dating from the 13th century onward and the Granadan school beginning toward the end of the 16th century both focused primarily on Christian religious subject matter, including many wooden altarpieces. Non-religious sculpture has also existed in Andalusia since antiquity. A fine example from the Renaissance era is the decoration of the Casa de Pilatos in Seville.
Nonetheless, non-religious sculpture played a relatively minor role until such 19th-century sculptors as Antonio Susillo. As in sculpture, there were Sevillian and the Granadan schools of painting.
The Museum of Fine Arts of Seville and the Prado contain numerous representative works of the Sevillian school of painting. A specific romantic genre known as costumbrismo andaluz depicts traditional and folkloric Andalusian subjects, such as bullfighting scenes, dogs, and scenes from Andalusia's history. Its most illustrious representative was Pablo Picassoone of the most influential artists of the 20th century.
The city has a Museum and Natal House Foundationdedicated to the painter. Andalusia plays a significant role in the history of Spanish-language literature, however not all of the important literature associated with Andalusia was written in Spanish. Beforethere was the literature written in Andalusian Arabic.
Ibn Quzmanof the 12th century, crafted poems in the colloquial Andalusian language. Also of this generation were the Quintero brothersdramatists who faithfully captured Andalusian dialects and idiosyncrasies.
Ballads, lullabies, street vendor's cries, nursery rhymes, and work songs are plentiful. The music of Andalusia includes traditional and contemporary music, folk and composed music, and ranges from flamenco to rock. Conversely, certain metric, melodic and harmonic characteristics are considered Andalusian even when written or performed by musicians from elsewhere. Flamenco, perhaps the most characteristically Andalusian genre of music and dance, originated in the 18th century, but is based in earlier forms from the region.
The influence of the traditional music and dance of the Romani people or Gypsies is particularly clear. The genre embraces distinct vocal cante flamencoguitar toque flamencoand dance baile flamenco styles.
The Andalusian Statute of Autonomy reflects the cultural importance of flamenco in its Articles Guiding principles of public policy: 18th The preservation and enhancement of the cultural, historic and artistic heritage of Andalusia, especially flamenco. Also within the Autonomous Community of Andalucia is the exclusive competence in knowledge, conservation, research, training, promotion and dissemination of flamenco as a unique element of the Andalusian cultural heritage.
Prominent Andalusian rock groups include Triana and Medina Azahara. These images particularly predominated from the s through the s, and helped to consolidate a cliched image of the region. During the dictatorship of Francisco Francothis was the extent of the film industry in Andalusia. Counting together feature films, documentaries, television programs, music videos etc. Each sub-region in Andalusia has its own unique customs that represent a fusion of Catholicism and local folklore.
The sombrero de Labradora worker's hat made of black velvet, is a signature style of the region. The tablao flamenco dance and the accompanying cante jondo vocal style originated in Andalusia and traditionally most often performed by the gypsy Romani.
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Saetas evoke strong emotion and are sung most often during public processions. The region also has a rich musical tradition of flamenco songs, or palos called cartageneras. Seville celebrates Semana Santaone of the better known religious events within Spain. During the festival, religious fraternities dress as penitents and carry large floats of lifelike wooden sculptures representing scenes of the Passionand images of the Virgin Mary.
Sevillanasa type of old folk music sung and written in Seville and still very popular, are performed in fairs and festivals, along with an associated dance for the music, the Baile por sevillanas. All the different regions of Andalusia have developed their own distinctive customs, but all share a connectedness to Catholicism as developed during baroque Spain society. Andalusian Spanish is one of the most widely spoken forms of Spanish in Spain, and because of emigration patterns was very influential on American Spanish.
Rather than a single dialect, it is really a range of dialects sharing some common features; among these is the retention of more Arabic words than elsewhere in Spain, as well as some phonological differences compared with Standard Spanish.
The isoglosses that mark the borders of Andalusian Spanish overlap to form a network of divergent boundaries, so there is no clear border for the linguistic region. The territory now known as Andalusia fell within the sphere of influence of ancient Mediterranean mythological beliefs.
The Islote de Sancti Petri held the supposed tomb of Hercules, with representations of his Twelve labors ; the region was the traditional site of the tenth labor, obtaining the cattle of the monster Geryon. Traditionally, the Pillars of Hercules flank the Strait of Gibraltar. The present coat of arms of Andalusia shows Hercules between two lions, with two pillars behind these figures.
Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in Andalusia. Inthe proportion of Andalusians that identify themselves as Roman Catholic was While some trace the lineage of the Spanish Fighting Bull back to Roman times, today's fighting bulls in the Iberian peninsula and in the former Spanish Empire trace back to Andalusia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The oldest bullring still in use in Spain is the neoclassical Plaza de toros in Rondabuilt in The Andalusian festivals provide a showcase for popular arts and traditional costume.
Festivals of a religious nature are a deep Andalusian tradition and are met with great popular fervor. There are numerous major festivals during Holy Week. The Andalusian diet varies, especially between the coast and the interior, but in general is a Mediterranean diet based on olive oilcerealslegumesvegetablesfishdried fruits and nutsand meat ; there is also a great tradition of drinking wine. There are several denominaciones de origeneach with its own specifications including in just which microclimate region ham of a particular denomination must be cured.
Confectionery is popular in Andalusia. Almonds and honey are common ingredients. Hot and cold soups based in olive oil, garlic, bread, tomato and peppers include gazpachosalmorejoporra antequeranaajo calientesopa camperaor-using almonds instead of tomato- ajoblanco. Wine has a privileged place at the Andalusian table. Andalusian wines are known worldwide, especially fortified wines such as sherry jerezaged in soleras.
Condado de HuelvaD. Montilla-Morilesand D. Andalusia also produces D.
Vinagre de Jerez and D. Brandy de Jerez. The traditional dress of 18th-century Andalusia was strongly influenced by majismo within the context of casticismo purism, traditionalism, authenticity.
The archetype of the majo and maja was that of a bold, pure Spaniard from a lower-class background, somewhat flamboyant in his or her style of dress. This emulation of lower-class dress also extended to imitating the clothes of brigands and Romani "Gypsy" women. Andalusia is also known for its dogs, particularly the Andalusian Houn which was originally bred in the region.
Dogs, not just andalusian hounds, are very popular in the region. Andalusian equestrianism, institutionalized in the Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art is known well beyond the borders of Spain. The Andalusian horse is strongly built, compact yet elegant, distinguished in the area of dressage and show jumpingand is also an excellent horse for driving.
They are known for their elegant "dancing" gait. In Andalusia, as throughout Spain, football is the predominant sport. Introduced to Spain by British men who worked in mining for Rio Tinto in the province of Huelva, the sport soon became popular with the local population. Betis won La Liga in and Sevilla in the season. The Andalusia autonomous football team is not in any league, and plays only friendly matches.
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In recent years, they have played mostly during the Christmas break of the football leagues. They play mostly against national teams from other countries, but would not be eligible for international league play, where Spain is represented by a single national team.
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