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The country takes its name from the river that runs along its northern and eastern borders, forming the frontier with Mauritania and Mali. A poetic etymology from the Wolof people states that the name derives from the local term Sunugal, meaning "our dugout canoe" everyone is in the same boat. The Republic of Senegal became independent in after three centuries of French colonial rule. Dakar, the capital since independence in , lies on the Cap Vert peninsula, the most westerly point in Africa. Although predominantly Muslim, Senegal is a tolerant secular state, whose peoples have lived together peacefully for several generations and have intermingled to some extent. Islam is a potential unifying factor.

These are occupations of a profoundly social nature: it is not usual to see a woman cooking and doing laundry alone. These moments serve to reinforce social bonds by talking about relatives, friends, problems, illusions, in the absence of the husband. In the picture, part of the exhibition Women and Borders, a group of women doing the laundry in the courtyard of a building in the neighborhiood of Marche Boubesse in Guediawaye, on the outskirts of Dakar.

I'm a photographer based in Dakar West Africa. I love to document cultures and people! Name required. Mail will not be published required. Lepers, polio victims, and beggars are a common sight in the cities. View of Dakar's Independence Square. Many rural lands are still owned by city dwellers. Symbols of Social Stratification. During the colonial era, nearly all the profits generated by the largest firms went to foreigners and the local nobility.

The nationalization programs led by the government after independence favored a small number of citizens who entered into a new competition for status and power.

Women in Senegal

The clans included successful businessmen, highly educated or politically well-connected individuals who were able to afford European-style living standards, including cars, modern appliances, luxurious villas or apartments, good schools, higher education for their children, and travel abroad. Investments in real estate, commerce, and agriculture were signs of achievement. In the rural hinterlands of the Cap Vert region, city dwellers own as much as 70 percent of the land.

Jardiniers du Dimancheor "Sunday farmers" have invested in truck farms, orchards, and cattle-fattening operations, using loans from state-run banks.

Corruption has contributed to the growing gap between the elite and the masses who are struggling to survive. Senegal is a moderately decentralized republic dominated by a strong presidency. The president is elected by popular vote for a seven-year term and appoints a prime minister. The constitution provides for a civilian government composed of a dominant executive branch, a National Assembly, and an independent judiciary. A second legislative chamber, the Senate, was established in Leadership and Political Officials.

Called the "Poet President," Senghor was elected in Inspired by the romantic vision of Africa of Harlem Renaissance authors and European ethnographers, Senghor exalted African culture. During his reign, the arts were well funded; he organized the Festival of Negro Arts in Dakar in Although a practicing Roman Catholic, Senghor developed strong ties with the Muslim brotherhoods, who supported him.

Some Senegalese respected and revered him as the "Father of the Nation" even though they did not share his political views. Senghor's political legacy was mixed. He provided the nation with a level of peace, political stability, tolerance, and freedom of expression that was rare in Africa. Unlike most African leaders, he knew when and how to give up power. However, by establishing a de facto one-party system, he contributed to the decline of his party's dynamism and thwarted the development of an opposition that could openly challenge national policies that had failed to stem economic decline.

President Abdou Diouf, who held office from towas a handpicked successor who peacefully stepped down after two decades in power.

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In a presidential election held in the yearthe forty-year dominance of the Socialist Party and Diouf's nineteen-year reign ended. In a second round of elections, he was defeated by Abdoulaye Wade, the leader of the main opposition party, the Senegalese Democratic Party. Social Problems and Control. In the s, Senegal, which had been largely free of ethnic, racial, and religious strife, began to experience those problems.

Anti-Moor rioting and the mass exodus of Moors inthe insurrection of separatist rebels, the fundamentalist Islamists who have emerged to challenge the brotherhoods' religious authority and the legitimacy of the secular state, and students' unrest and frustration at the lack of employment opportunities after graduation are signs of a more turbulent and less tolerant society.

The culture of Senegal Senegal has a rich and varied culture dating back centuries. Music and dance play an integral role, and distinctive traditional music such as Yela, the rhythms of which mimic the sound of grain being pounded by female villagers, is . College girls Pune. Pune escorts welcomes you into its world of pleasure with a kind of girls Senegalese Dating Culture In Japan who makes you satisfied beyond the limits, this is one such a place for all of your fantasies and it will be fulfilled through the Senegalese Dating Culture In Japan girl in Senegalese Dating Culture In Japan a most spectacular way, get in touch with / Disclaimer: This website contains adult material, all members and persons appearing on this site have contractually represented to us that they are 18 years of age or older. If you are a minor, or do not wish to view adult materials, please leave now! Access and use to this Senegalese Dating Culture In England website by minors is strictly forbidden/

Theft occurs frequently, and most of the time people beat the criminal before the police arrive; on many occasions, vigilante groups and mobs have tried to lynch suspected thieves.

Civilians have no access to guns, which are used mostly by the military and the police. In urban areas, alcoholism and drug use mostly cannabis have become a major issue. Military Activity. The army has demonstrated a firm commitment to civilian rule and loyalty to the regime in power.

Diouf continued Senghor's policy of building up the army and using it as an instrument of foreign policy. The army was used to put down the insurgency in the Casamance and ensure peace and order on the borders with Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau in the late s and early s.

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The military forces number about fifteen thousand and are among the best trained in Africa. Poor economic management has led to the intervention of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in State programs and policies.

Senegal: Beyond Tradition

Two decades of structural adjustment programs have reduced government spending in all public sector activities, including social services. Urban and rural dwellers have adopted creative survival strategies, that have helped them cope with difficult times.

In difficult economic times, individuals and communities increasingly rely on social ties to create solidarity networks. These ties include family, friends, ethnic groups, neighborhood associations, religious brotherhoods, and hometown networks. Village-based parent student associations have played an important role in financing school construction and providing school supplies and materials in rural areas.

Village health committees have been organized to build maternity and village health centers and manage the distribution of medicines. In the countryside, farmers have launched their own irrigated agricultural projects. Nongovernmental organizations have helped finance these small-scale development activities. Division of Labor by Gender. Women generally do most of the household chores of cooking, cleaning, and child rearing.

With the growing exodus of young men from the villages, rural women have become increasingly involved in managing village forestry resources and operating millet and rice mills.

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The government has established a rural development agency designed to organize village women and involve them more actively in the development process. Women play a prominent role in village health committees and prenatal and postnatal programs.

In urban areas, despite women's second-class status within Islam, change has proceeded rapidly in big cities, where women have entered the labor market as secretaries, typists, salesclerks, maids, and unskilled workers in textile mills and tuna-canning factories. The Relative Status of Women and Men. The position of women in most ethnic groups is one of dependence: husbands, fathers, brothers, and uncles all have rights over women and much of what they produce.

Despite constitutional protections, women face extensive societal discrimination, especially in rural areas, where Islamic and traditional customs, including polygyny and Islamic rules of inheritance, are strong and women generally are confined A house in Sokone, Senegal, has protected privacy with a painted metal fence.

About half of all women live in polygynous unions. It is estimated that only 20 percent of women are engaged in paid employment. Due to the fact that men are legally considered heads of the household, women pay higher taxes than men and employers pay child allowances to men and not to women.

In urban areas, several women's groups have formed to address violence against women, usually wife beating, which is a common problem. The police usually do not intervene in domestic disputes, and most people are reluctant to go outside the family for help. In rural areas, parents often arrange marriages for their children. A young man may want a young woman, but his father decides whether she is suitable. A go-between often is appointed to investigate the woman's family background.

If the father finds the family satisfactory, he sends the go-between to deliver kola nuts to the woman's parents. The parents accept the kola nuts if they approve of the young man.

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In matrilineal ethnic groups such as the Wolof, the mother's brother is sent on behalf of the groom to ask for the bride's hand. Along with kola nuts, money is given. Gifts such as a television set, a sewing machine, jewelry, and fashionable clothes are required from the groom.

In Muslim families, most marriages are conducted at the mosque by the iman, or religious leader. Then a civil marriage takes place at city hall or the family court. The bride moves to the groom's house with great ceremony in which relatives and friends participate. In rural areas, young women sing ribald songs to provoke and entertain. Usually many days of festivities follow. Domestic Unit. The core of a domestic group or compound is a nuclear polygynous or family. After marriage, a man brings his wife to his father's compound, but such residence is not necessarily permanent.

In any domestic group, other people often live with the family, sometimes permanently and sometimes temporarily. Often these are kin such as the male head's unmarried or divorced sister, a sister's child, or a wife's child by a divorced spouse.

The debts of the deceased are paid before the estate is distributed among the heirs. If all the deceased's children are minors, his brother acts as trustee for the estate. He may marry the deceased's widow, but this is not common. If there is an adult son of the deceased, he acts as the trustee. When a married man with children dies, each son receives a full share in the estate, each daughter gets A Senegalese family having a meal together, Ile de Goree. Traditional housekeeping and child-rearing roles are expected from Senegalese women, particularly in rural areas.

A learned man often is called in to see that the distribution follows Islamic law, because few people make wills.

Being a woman in Senegal Senegalese society is a complex one in which there are more than ten different ethnic groups and at least three religions divided, in turn, into a large number of families or sects within Islam known as brotherhoods. Mar 22,   Senegalese Women are Muslims But What if I told you that 92of the Senegalese population is Muslim? And what if I told you that it doesn't matter? Yes, it does NOT matter even if you are a Christian man. As long as you are open to dating a girl with a different religion, she's open too. And don't worry. Senegalese Dating Culture In England, how online dating has become shallow, free online dating sites for singles 86 98, boston legal season 1 episode 18 online dating/

Kin Groups. The traditional social structure based on kinship and rigid stratification remains important but is being modified by the spread of education, the market economy, and the movement of people to urban and industrial centers.

The presence of kin at life-cycle ceremonials is necessary for the achievement and maintenance of status. Infant Care. People value children greatly. A child is seen as neighborhood property, and so child care responsibilities are shared. Using a Mbotu, a brightly colored rectangular shawl, mothers carry babies closely tied to their backs during their daily occupations.

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Neighbors and family members take turns helping busy mothers. Abandonment of infants is rare, and the strength of family bonds limits the need for institutional care of orphans. Child Rearing and Education. By the time a child is five or six years of age, he or she is taught good values and etiquette.

A child should greet elders, help parents with household chores, avoid foul language, and listen to the wisdom of elders. In their early years, boys and girls play together. As they grow older, gender roles become more sharply defined, with the girls remaining more with their mothers to learn household chores.

In almost all ethnic groups, boys are circumcised as part of the process of reaching maturity, but the practice of female genital mutilation has been made a criminal offense. Muslim children attend Koranic school until they are six or seven at which time they start a formal education.

Corporal punishment in schools has become unacceptable to parents, particularly in urban areas. Formal education is free. The school system has primary, secondary, and advanced levels.

Education is available to both sexes. There are many private schools, run primarily by Catholic religious orders. Higher Education. There are also several vocational institutes.

As a result of student unrest and deteriorating conditions at the universities, the elite often sends its children to study abroad. A woman making fish pastilles on the street, Goree Island. Fish products are a major export. The day starts with greetings.

Young men often shake hands, and young women curtsy and often bend down slightly on one knee to greet their elders. Foul language is not tolerated in public, and people usually resort to communication or "dialogue" to diffuse hostility and aggressiveness.

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People employ Kal, an institutionalized joking relationship that permits individuals within extended families, caste groups, and ethnic groups to exchange blunt comments when they meet even if they do not know one another.

Comments frequently focus on eating habits, cleanliness, and intelligence. A person's social rating often is linked to how well he or she respects community values such as Jom dignity or self-respect and Ham-sa-bop self-knowledge. Religious Beliefs. Ninety percent of the people identify themselves as Muslims and are affiliated with one of the three principal brotherhoods: the Mourides, the Tijaniyya, or the Qadiriyya.

Each brotherhood is distinguished by slight differences in rituals and codes of conduct. Each year, wealthy and middle-class people make the pilgrimage to Mecca. Despite the small size of the Catholic community approximately 5 percent of the populationSenegal has produced one of black Africa's few cardinals. cts of traditional religion are fused with Islam or Christianity.

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Many urbanized people still regard their ancestors as important spiritual leaders of everyday life, although Allah or God is worshiped formally. Religious Practitioners. Many Senegalese believe that living people and spirits may control supernatural forces, and malevolent men often are feared more deeply than are evil spirits. The Wolof seek help from a Jabaran-kat "healer"who asks them to sacrifice a chicken to ward off the evil powers of a doma "witch".

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Death and the Afterlife. Death is considered a path by which one joins one's ancestors. When a person dies, loud mourning echoes from the house of the bereaved. Others sing and dance to celebrate the dead person and to send his or her spirit to heaven. The cult of the ancestors is practiced among many of the ethnic groups.

Among the rural Wolof, household water jars are seldom cleaned because the spirit of an ancestor could come to drink at that moment and find no water. As a tropical country and a poor nation, Senegal is challenged by numerous health problems, including parasitic, intestinal, venereal, and respiratory diseases.

Poor sanitation is the main environmental factor that affects the level of health. Malaria is endemic and is a cause of premature death. Intestinal parasites are common because of polluted water. Gonorrhea is present in urban centers. AIDS is a major concern for the population and the health services.

Other diseases include hepatitis, trachoma, and tuberculosis. The quality of medical care has deteriorated because of the decline in the number of hospital beds and medical personnel, the lack of medicines in public health facilities, and the appalling conditions of public hospitals.

During the holidays, people cook ceremonial food and dress up in bright traditional outfits. Support for the Arts. Artists are self-supporting and are forced to seek markets outside the country. There is a strong tradition of oral literature that reflects the country's history, philosophy, morality, and culture.

I asked one of the girls I chatted with if she can recommend a nightlife venue. She said there is none. I asked another girl. Apparently, this is the only good night club.

Okay, not all of them. But the prettier girls prefer this club over the streets. But you can blame yourself if you accidentally end up with one because now you know the truth. But still. Most of the girls are Muslims.

Fuck, I have to correct what I said earlier about getting tipsy and touchy in the lounge. That made me smile. You can meet a lot of Senegalese brides online. Many of them would be more than happy to marry a man like you.

This Senegalese Dating Culture In Belgium is the First online people finder service for both men and ladies. Meet, and fuck instantly at a moment's notice - Not all members find Sex but some of them want serious relationships. The adult dating site is one the oldest way to search guys near your local area/ Senegal is a land of traditions, and its people, although heterogenous, share a strong sense of national identity deeply rooted in Thiossane, a word used by the Wolof as well as the Serer (Fulani), that means "history, tradition, and culture." Since the World Festival of Negro Arts was organized at Dakar in , institutions have been created. However, Senegalese feminists have been critical of the government's lack of action in enforcing the protocols, conventions and other texts that have been signed as a means of protecting women's rights. Women's rights. Women in Senegal face a number of disparities in their social status. Women have high rates of tiendakiteboarding.comal mortality (per ,): .

And one of the reasons isfreedom. The women have to stay home and take care of the household.

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If her husband says it, she has to quit her studies and serve him all day long. Well, the women are surprisingly open-minded. And I was even more surprised to find so many women online. But if you compliment her hair and explore some of the first date venues I shared with you, you can have a wonderful time. Keep in mind that she probably wants to be more than just your girlfriend.

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This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. And the women in Dakar are beautiful.

Senegalese Women are Surprisingly Popular Online. I expected hundreds of girls and not thousands. I guess that compensates for the backside.

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